Nd:YAG, Nd:YVO (crystal lasers)
Just like fiber lasers, crystal lasers are members of the solid-state laser group. Nowadays, lasers for marking applications are pumped by diodes (or flash lamps in the past). The most common laser types in this category are nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) and Nd:YVO (neodymium-doped yttrium ortho-vanadate), named after the neodymium doping element and carrier crystal.
With a 1.064 micrometres wavelength, crystal lasers have the same wavelength as fiber lasers and are also therefore suited for marking metals and plastics.
Unlike fiber lasers, though, these laser types include relatively expensive pump diodes, which are wearing parts. This means that they must be replaced after approximately 8,000-15,000 laser hours. The crystal itself also offers a shorter service life than a fiber laser.
Suited for the following materials: Metals, coated metals, plastics, to some extent also for ceramic.