Laser technology consists of three components:
- An external pump source
- The active laser medium
- The resonator
The pump source guides external energy to the laser.
The active laser medium is located within the laser. Depending on the design, the medium can consist of either a gaseous mixture (CO2 laser), a crystal body (YAG laser) or glass fibers (fiber laser). When energy is fed to the laser medium through the pump, it emits energy in the form of radiation.
The active laser medium is located between two mirrors – the ‘resonator’. One is only a one-way mirror. The radiation of the active laser medium is amplified within the resonator. Simultaneously, only a certain radiation can exit the resonator through the one-way mirror. This is the laser radiation.
- Monochromatic – the radiation consists of only one wavelength.
- High coherence and thereby phase coincidence.
- The waves of the laser are approximately parallel due to the coherence.